Example: applied sociology
Audio Pronunciation: (so·ci·ol·o·gy)
Download Audio Pronunciation: sociology.mp3
- Plural: sociologies
- Coined by Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte known better as Auguste Comte (1798–1857) in 1834, though he originally called it social physics. Comte also established sociology as a systematic field of study.
- The point of view used in sociology is called the sociological perspective and is described by Peter Berger (1929) in Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective (1963) as “seeing the general in the particular.”
- A (noun) sociologist studies society from the (adjective) sociologic or (adjective) sociologistic or (adjective) sociological perspective to understand social interactions (adverb) sociologically.
- “Sociology, through its emphasis on observation and measurement, allows us to bring rigorous and systematic scientific thinking and information to bear on difficult questions associated with social policies and choices, including those related to poverty, health, immigration, crime, and education. Many people interested in these issues do not realize that more than concern is need to solve problems. Action must be informed by knowledge” (Hughes and Kroehler 2008:3).
- “We study sociology to understand how human behavior is shaped by group life and, in turn, how group life is affected by individuals. Our culture tends to emphasize individualism, and sociology pushes us to consider more complex connection between out personal lives and the larger world” (Kendall 2006:37).
- Word origin of “sociology” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Ballard, Chris, Jon Gubbay, and Chet Middleton, eds. 1997. The Student’s Companion to Sociology. London: Blackwell.
- Bauman, Zygmunt. 1990. Thinking Sociologically. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Bennett, Tony, and Diane Watson, eds. 2002. Understanding Everyday Life. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Anchor Books.
- Bottomore, Thomas Burton, and Robert Nisbet. 1978. A History of Sociological Analysis. New York: Basic Books.
- Coser, Lewis A. 1971. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
- Giddens, Anthony. 1971. Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the Writings of Marx, Durkheim, and Max Weber. Cambridge: The University Press.
- Levin, Jack. 2008. Sociological Snapshots. 5th ed. Newbury Park, CA: Pine Forge.
- Lukes, Steven. 1972. Émile Durkheim. New York: Harper & Row.
- Madge, John Hylton. 1962. The Origins of Scientific Sociology. New York: The Free Press.
- McLellan, David. 1975. Karl Marx. New York: Penguin.
- Mills, Charles Wright. 1959. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Nisbet, Robert A. 1967. The Sociological Tradition. London: Heinemann.
- Noble, Trevor. 2000. Social Theory and Social Change. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
- Parsons, Talcott. 1951. The Social System. New York: The Free Press.
- Pickering, Mary. 1993. Auguste Comte. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Ritzer, George. 2017. Sociological Theory. 10th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
- Schaefer, Richard T. 2009. Sociology: A Brief Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Seidman, Steven. 2017. Contested Knowledge: Social Theory Today. 6th ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Turner, Bryan S. 2016. The Blackwell Companion to Social Theory. 2nd ed. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell.
- Weber, Max. 1905. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
- Willis, Evan. 1996. The Sociological Quest: An Introduction to the Study of Social Life. 5th ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
- Durkheim, Émile
- Marx, Karl
- Weber, Max
Hughes, Michael, and Carolyn J. Kroehler. 2008. Sociology: The Core. 8th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Kendall, Diane. 2006. Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill, and Bryan Turner. 2006. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London: Penguin.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 5th ed. 2011. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Andersen, Margaret L., and Howard Francis Taylor. 2011. Sociology: The Essentials. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Brinkerhoff, David, Lynn White, Suzanne Ortega, and Rose Weitz. 2011. Essentials of Sociology. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Bruce, Steve, and Steven Yearley. 2006. The SAGE Dictionary of Sociology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Brym, Robert J., and John Lie. 2007. Sociology: Your Compass for a New World. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Ferrante, Joan. 2011a. Seeing Sociology: An Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ferrante, Joan. 2011b. Sociology: A Global Perspective. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ferris, Kerry, and Jill Stein. 2010. The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology. 2nd ed. New York: Norton.
Griffiths, Heather, Nathan Keirns, Eric Strayer, Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Gail Scaramuzzo, Tommy Sadler, Sally Vyain, Jeff Bry, Faye Jones. 2016. Introduction to Sociology 2e. Houston, TX: OpenStax.
Henslin, James M. 2012. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. 10th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Jary, David, and Julia Jary. 2000. Collins Dictionary of Sociology. 3rd ed. Glasgow, Scotland: HarperCollins.
Kendall, Diane. 2011. Sociology in Our Times. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Kimmel, Michael S., and Amy Aronson. 2012. Sociology Now. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Kornblum, William. 2008. Sociology in a Changing World. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Macionis, John. 2012. Sociology. 14th ed. Boston: Pearson.
Macionis, John, and Kenneth Plummer. 2012. Sociology: A Global Introduction. 4th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
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Ravelli, Bruce, and Michelle Webber. 2016. Exploring Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson.
Schaefer, Richard. 2013. Sociology: A Brief Introduction. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Scott, John, and Gordon Marshall. 2005. A Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Shepard, Jon M. 2010. Sociology. 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Shepard, Jon M., and Robert W. Greene. 2003. Sociology and You. New York: Glencoe.
Stewart, Paul, and Johan Zaaiman, eds. 2015. Sociology: A Concise South African Introduction. Cape Town: Juta.
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How to Cite the Definition of Sociology
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “sociology.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved June 27, 2019 (http://sociologydictionary.org/sociology/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
sociology. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from http://sociologydictionary.org/sociology/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “sociology.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed June 27, 2019. http://sociologydictionary.org/sociology/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“sociology.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 27 Jun. 2019. <http://sociologydictionary.org/sociology/>.