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validity

(noun) When a measurement accurately reflects what is measured.

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value

1. (noun) A belief, ideal, or principle that an individual or group has that determines what is correct, desirable, and proper; 2. (noun) A quality that renders something desirable or valuable; 3. (noun) The amount of money, goods, or services something is worth; 4. (noun) A numeric quantity.

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value neutrality

(noun) Attempting to remain impartial during a study, observation or an analysis.

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value-added theory

(noun) According to Neil Smelser (1930–2017), the theory that for collective behavior to occur, several preconditions or determinants must exist.

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variable

1. (noun) A set of attributes or values; 2. (noun) Any characteristic, number, or quantity that can vary among a sample or population that can be measured; 3. (noun) A symbol like X or Y that represents a measurable characteristic.

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Verstehen

(noun) German word, typically translated as “understanding”, used by Max Weber (1864–1920) to describe the need for “subjective understanding” or the ability to understand individuals or groups from the perspective of the observed; “walk a mile in their shoes”.

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vice crime

(noun) A vice that is deemed illegal by an authority.

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victimless crime

(noun) A crime that is against the law but that only harms the individuals who consented to engage in it.

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violent crime

(noun) A crime committed through the use of force or the threat of force.

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voluntary organization

(noun) An organization that an individual joins in order to pursue interests that are shared by themselves and others.

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voluntary participation

(noun) A requirement in ethical research that participants choose to participate and are not coerced.