(noun) When a measurement accurately reflects what is measured.
(noun) An ideal or principle that determines what is correct, desirable, or morally proper.
(noun) Attempting to remain impartial during a study, observation or an analysis.
(noun) According to Neil Smelser (1930–2017), the theory that for collective behavior to occur, several preconditions or determinants must exist.
1. (noun) A set of attributes or values; 2. (noun) Any characteristic, number, or quantity that can vary among a sample or population that can be measured; 3. (noun) A symbol like X or Y that represents a measurable characteristic.
(noun) German word, typically translated as “understanding”, used by Max Weber (1864–1920) to describe the need for “subjective understanding” or the ability to understand individuals or groups from the perspective of the observed; “walk a mile in their shoes”.
(noun) A vice that is deemed illegal by an authority.
(noun) A crime that is against the law but that only harms the individuals who consented to engage in it.
(noun) A crime committed through the use of force or the threat of force.
(noun) An organization that an individual joins in order to pursue interests that are shared by themselves and others.
(noun) A requirement in ethical research that participants choose to participate and are not coerced.