Example: People are typically expected to refrain from stealing from others and to wear clothes in public places.
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- The terms norm and social norm are used interchangeably in a sociological context.
- Norms can be formal or informal and visible and invisible.
- Norms are learned through socialization and enforced through negative or positive sanctions.
- “All groups have norms, values, beliefs, ways of life, and codes of conduct that identify the group and define its boundaries” (McNamee and Miller 2013:58).
- “If religion protects man against the desire to kill himself, it is not because it preaches respect for his person based on arguments sui generis, but because it is a society. What constitutes this society is the existence of a certain number of beliefs and practices common to all the faithful which are traditional and therefore obligatory. The more numerous and strong these collective states are, the more strongly integrated is the religious community, and the greater its preservative value” (Durkheim  2004:74).
- “No society lacks norms governing conduct. But societies do differ in the degree to which folkways, mores and institutional controls are effectively integrated with the goals which stand high in the hierarchy of cultural values. The culture may be such as to lead individuals to center their emotional convictions upon the complex of culturally acclaimed ends, with far less emotional support for prescribed methods of reaching out for these ends. With such differential emphases upon goals and institutional procedures, the latter may be so vitiated by the stress on goals as to have the behavior of many individuals limited only by considerations of technical expediency. In this context, the sole significant question becomes: Which of the available procedures is most efficient in netting the culturally approved value? The technically most effective procedure, whether culturally legitimate or not, becomes typically preferred to institutionally prescribed conduct. As this process of attenuation continues, the society becomes unstable and there develops what Durkheim called ‘anomie’ (normlessness)” (Merton  1968:189).
- Dahrendorf, Ralf. 1959. Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gibbs, Jack P. 1965. “Norms: The Problem of Definition and Classification.” American Journal of Sociology 70(5):586–94.
- Lockwood, David. 1992. Solidarity and Schism: ‘The Problem of Disorder’ in Durkheimian and Marxist Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Parsons, Talcott. 1951. The Social System. New York: The Free Press.
- Rex, John. 1961. Key Problems of Sociological Theory. London: Routledge & Kegan.
- Sumner, William Graham. 1906. Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals.
- Therborn, Goran. 2002. “Back to Norms! On the Scope and Dynamics of Norms and Normative Action.” Current Sociology. 50(6): 863-880.
- Durkheim, Émile
- social movement
Durkheim, Émile.  2004. “Suicide.” Pp. 65–83 in Readings from Emile Durkheim. Rev. ed., edited and translated by K. Thompson. New York: Routledge.
McNamee, Stephen J., and Robert K. Miller, Jr. 2013. The Meritocracy Myth. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Merton, Robert King.  1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.