(noun) A theory arguing that individuals and their lives are affected, defined, or determined by the statuses they hold in relation to the contexts they are in.
Example: A working class woman faces gender and economic discrimination and a working class woman of color faces economic, gender, and racial discrimination.
Audio Pronunciation: (in·ter·sec·tion·al·ity)
Download Audio Pronunciation: intersectionality.mp3
- Plural: intersectionalities
- Theory developed by Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989. Originally a feminist theory for explaining how different axes of social, biological, and cultural categories intersect in the lives of individuals and the difficulties of understanding one axis in isolation without looking at others and how they affect each other.
- Also called:
- cumulative disadvantage
- intersection theory
- multiple jeopardy
- Alonso, Alba. 2012. “Intersectionality by Other Means? New Equality Policies in Portugal.” Social Politics 19(4):596–621. doi:10.1093/sp/jxs017.
- Andersen, Margaret L., and Patricia Hill-Collins, eds. 2009. Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
- Barnard, Helen, and Claire Turner. 2011. Poverty and Ethnicity: A Review of the Evidence. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
- Berger, Michele Tracy, and Kathleen Guidroz, eds. 2009. The Intersectional Approach: Transforming the Academy through Race, Class, and Gender. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
- Crenshaw, Kimberlé W. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43(6):1241–99. doi:10.2307/1229039.
- Grusky, David B., ed. 2014. Social Stratification: Class, Race and Gender in Sociological Perspective. 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Hancock, Ange-Marie. 2007. “Intersectionality as a Normative and Empirical Paradigm.” Politics and Gender 3(2):248–54. doi:10.1017/s1743923x07000062.
- Lykke, N. 2011. “Intersectional Invisibility: Inquiries into a Concept of Intersectionality Studies.” Pp. 207–20 in Framing Intersectionality: Debates on a Multi-Faceted Concept in Gender Studies, edited by H. Lutz, M. T. H. Vivar, and L. Supik. Farnham: Ashgate.
- Rothman, Robert A. 2005. Inequality and Stratification: Class, Race and Gender. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
- Smooth, W. G. 2010. “Intersectionalities of Race and Gender and Leadership.” Pp. 31–40 in Gender and Women’s Leadership: A Reference Handbook, Vol. 1, edited by K. O’Connor. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
- Taylor, Yvette, Sally Hines, and Mark E. Casey, eds. 2010. Theorizing Intersectionality and Sexuality. Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.
Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill, and Bryan Turner. 2006. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London: Penguin.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 5th ed. 2011. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Bruce, Steve, and Steven Yearley. 2006. The SAGE Dictionary of Sociology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Collins English Dictionary: Complete and Unabridged. 6th ed. 2003. Glasgow, Scotland: Collins.
Dillon, Michele. 2014. Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-First Century. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Farlex. (N.d.) TheFreeDictionary.com: Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus. Farlex. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/).
Ferrante, Joan. 2011. Seeing Sociology: An Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Giddens, Anthony, and Philip W. Sutton. 2014. Essential Concepts in Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
Harper, Douglas. (N.d.) Online Etymology Dictionary. (http://www.etymonline.com/).
Hoad, T. F., ed. 1996. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Janssen, Sarah, ed. 2015. The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2015. New York: World Almanac Books.
Jary, David, and Julia Jary. 2000. Collins Dictionary of Sociology. 3rd ed. Glasgow, Scotland: HarperCollins.
Kimmel, Michael S., and Amy Aronson. 2012. Sociology Now. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, John, and Kenneth Plummer. 2012. Sociology: A Global Introduction. 4th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Macmillan. (N.d.) Macmillan Dictionary. (https://www.macmillandictionary.com/).
Merriam-Webster. (N.d.) Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/).
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Princeton University. 2010. WordNet. (https://wordnet.princeton.edu/).
Random House Webster’s College Dictionary. 1997. New York: Random House.
Ravelli, Bruce, and Michelle Webber. 2016. Exploring Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson.
Scott, John, and Gordon Marshall. 2005. A Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, Paul, and Johan Zaaiman, eds. 2015. Sociology: A Concise South African Introduction. Cape Town: Juta.
Turner, Bryan S., ed. 2006. The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/).
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).
How to Cite the Definition of Intersectionality
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “intersectionality.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved January 23, 2019 (http://sociologydictionary.org/intersectionality/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
intersectionality. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from http://sociologydictionary.org/intersectionality/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “intersectionality.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed January 23, 2019. http://sociologydictionary.org/intersectionality/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“intersectionality.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 23 Jan. 2019. <http://sociologydictionary.org/intersectionality/>.