Definition of Xenophobia
- American English – /zen-uh-fOH-bee-uh/
- British English – /ze-nuh-fOH-biuh/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˌzɛnəˈfoʊbiə/
- British English – /zɛnəˈfəʊbɪə/
- The opposite of xenophobia is xenomania.
- Variant spelling: xeno-phobia
- Also called xenophoby.
- “Ethnocentrism is one of sociology’s distinctive concepts. Comprehension of this concept is a major step in the acquisition of a sociological outlook. Students of introductory sociology are often left, at the end of the course, with a feeling that the term “ethnocentrism” denotes a flaw in human nature. Some of them may also be persuaded that their exposure to academic sociology has helped to immunize them against this natural but supposedly lamentable tendency to react ethnocentrically to people in other societies” (Catton 1960:201).
Catton, William R. 1960. “The Functions and Dysfunctions of Ethnocentrism: A Theory.” Social Problems 8(3):201–11. doi:10.2307/798910.
Andersen, Margaret L., and Howard Francis Taylor. 2011. Sociology: The Essentials. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Griffiths, Heather, Nathan Keirns, Eric Strayer, Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Gail Scaramuzzo, Tommy Sadler, Sally Vyain, Jeff Bry, Faye Jones. 2016. Introduction to Sociology 2e. Houston, TX: OpenStax.
Marsh, Ian, and Mike Keating, eds. 2006. Sociology: Making Sense of Society. 3rd ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Taylor & Francis. (N.d.) Routledge Handbooks Online. (https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/).
Turner, Bryan S., ed. 2006. The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/).
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “xenophobia.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved October 4, 2022 (https://sociologydictionary.org/xenophobia/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
xenophobia. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/xenophobia/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “xenophobia.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed October 4, 2022. https://sociologydictionary.org/xenophobia/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“xenophobia.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 4 Oct. 2022. <https://sociologydictionary.org/xenophobia/>.