Definition of Altruism
Examples of Altruism
- Donating time and money to a cause.
- Helping an elderly individual across the street.
Etymology of Altruism
- American English – /Al-troo-i-zuhm/
- British English – /Al-trui-zuhm/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˈæltruˌɪzəm/
- British English – /ˈæltrʊɪzm/
- Plural: altruisms
- Altruism is the opposite of egocentrism.
- Also called:
- An (noun) altruist exhibits altruism (adverb) altruistically in an (adjective) altruistic manner.
- “Having designated as ‘egoism‘ the condition in which the ego pursues its own life and is obedient only to itself, the designation ‘altruism’ adequately expresses the opposite condition in which the ego is not its own property. It is blended with something other than itself, and the goal of conduct is external to itself, that is, in one of the groups in which it participates. Thus we call the suicide caused by intense altruism ‘altruistic suicide'” (Durkheim  2004:77).
- “One fundamental question about human nature is whether people are ever capable of genuinely altruistic acts. The term altruism is typically used to reflect one of two concepts. The first is evolutionary altruism, which refers to helping behavior that benefits another at some cost to oneself. Evolutionary altruism reflects behavior caused by many different habits and motives assumed to have evolved in a species because they promote the long-term reproduction of species members’ genes. The term altruism is also used to reflect psychological altruism, which refers to a motivational state with the goal of increasing another’s welfare. Psychological altruism is typically contrasted with psychological egoism, which refers to a motivational state with the goal of increasing one’s own welfare” (Lishner and Stocks 2008:87–88).
- Word origin of “altruism” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Batson, C. Daniel, and Laura L. Shaw. 1991. “Evidence for Altruism: Toward a Pluralism of Prosocial Motives.” Psychological Inquiry 2(2):107–22. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0202_1.
- Durkheim, Émile. 1897. Suicide.
- Healy, Kieran Joseph. 2006. Last Best Gifts: Altruism and the Market for Human Blood and Organs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Latané, Bib, and John M. Darley. 1970. The Unresponsive Bystander: Why Doesn’t He Help? New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.
- Montada, Leo, and Hans Werner Bierhoff. 1991. Altruism in Social Systems. Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber.
- Piliavin, Jane Allyn, and Hong-Wen Charng. 1990. “Altruism: A Review of Recent Theory and Research.” Annual Review of Sociology 16(1):27–65. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.16.080190.000331.
- Silver, Morris. 1980. Affluence, Altruism, and Atrophy: The Decline of Welfare States. New York: New York University Press.
- Sober, Elliott, and David Sloan Wilson. 1998. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Durkheim, Émile.  2004. “Suicide.” Pp. 65–83 in Readings from Emile Durkheim. Rev. ed., edited and translated by K. Thompson. New York: Routledge.
Lishner, David A., and E. L. Stocks. 2008. “Altruism.” Pp. 87–88 in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2nd ed., edited by W. Darity. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA.
Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill, and Bryan Turner. 2006. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London: Penguin.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 5th ed. 2011. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Bilton, Tony, Kevin Bonnett, Pip Jones, David Skinner, Michelle Stanworth, and Andrew Webster. 1996. Introductory Sociology. 3rd ed. London: Macmillan.
Brym, Robert J., and John Lie. 2007. Sociology: Your Compass for a New World. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Encyclopædia Britannica. (N.d.) Britannica Digital Learning. (https://britannicalearn.com/).
Farlex. (N.d.) TheFreeDictionary.com: Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus. Farlex. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/).
Ferris, Kerry, and Jill Stein. 2010. The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology. 2nd ed. New York: Norton.
Macmillan. (N.d.) Macmillan Dictionary. (https://www.macmillandictionary.com/).
Merriam-Webster. (N.d.) Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/).
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Princeton University. 2010. WordNet. (https://wordnet.princeton.edu/).
Random House Webster’s College Dictionary. 1997. New York: Random House.
Taylor & Francis. (N.d.) Routledge Handbooks Online. (https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/).
Turner, Bryan S., ed. 2006. The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/).
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).
Wiley. (N.d.) Wiley Online Library. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/).
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “altruism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved September 18, 2021 (https://sociologydictionary.org/altruism/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
altruism. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/altruism/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “altruism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed September 18, 2021. https://sociologydictionary.org/altruism/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“altruism.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 18 Sep. 2021. <https://sociologydictionary.org/altruism/>.