(noun) A philosophy and research method that studies experienced events and objects using the senses.
Example: Exploring the natural environment and language through a phenomenological lens such as David Abram (1957) did in The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World (1996).
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- Edmund Husserl (1859–1938) developed phenomenology as a philosophical method of inquiry building on the work of previous scholars, particularly Enlightenment philosophers such as Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). Martin Heidegger (1889–1976), Emmanuel Levinas (1906–1995), Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1905 –1961), and Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980) studied aspects of phenomenology.
- Alfred Schütz (1899–1959), a student of Husserl developed phenomenological sociology (also called social phenomenology) which merged phenomenology with the study of social relations in The Phenomenology of the Social World (1932).
- Peter Berger (1929) and Thomas Luckman (1927) in The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (1966), an oft studied and debated book, provides an overview of phenomenological sociology.
- A (noun) phenomenologist attempts to know the world (adverb) phenomologically by interpreting the world though (adjective) phenomenological or (adjective) phenomenologic or (adjective) phenomenolistic lenses
- “In a society that accords priority to that which is predictable and places a premium on certainty, our spontaneous, preconceptual experience, when acknowledged at all, is referred to as “merely subjective.” The fluid realm of direct experience has come to be seen as a secondary, derivative dimension, a consequence of events unfolding in the “realer” world of quantifiable and measurable scientific “facts” (Abram 1996:34).
- “Phenomenology, as [Edmund Husserl] articulated it in the early 1900s, would turn toward “the things themselves,” toward the world as it is experienced in its felt immediacy. Unlike the mathematics-based sciences, phenomenology would seek not to explain the world, but to describe as closely as possible the way the world makes itself evident to awareness, the way things first arise in the our direct, sensorial experience. By thus returning to the taken-for-granted realm of subjective experience, not to explain it but simply to pay attention to its rhythms and textures, not to capture or control it but simply to become familiar with its diverse modes of appearance—and ultimately to give voice to its enigmatic and ever-shifting patterns—phenomenology would articulate the ground of the other sciences (Abram 1996:35).
- Bernstein, Richard J. 1976. The Restructuring of Social and Political theory. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
- Cerbone, David R. 2006. Understanding Phenomenology. London: Acumen.
- Gallagher, Shaun. 2012. Phenomenology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Hammond, Michael, Jane Howarth, and Russell Keat. 1991. Understanding Phenomenology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell.
- Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 1945. Phenomenology of Perception.
- Mohanty, Jitendranath. 2008. The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl: A Historical Development. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- Moran, Dermot. 1999. Introduction to Phenomenology. New York: Routledge.
- Schutz, Alfred. 1932. The Phenomenology of the Social World. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press.
- Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology: phenomenologycenter.org
- Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy – A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource: iep.utm.edu
- Phenomenology Online.com – A Resource for Phenomenological Inquiry: phenomenologyonline.com
- Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy: spep.org
- The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosphy – Phenomenology: plato.stanford.edu
Abram, David. 1996. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. New York: Pantheon Books.