Definitions of Stigma
- (noun) The social phenomenon or process whereby individuals that are taken to be different in some way are rejected by the greater society in with they live based on that difference.
- (noun) Labels that associate people with unfavorable or disapproved behavior and characteristics.
- American English – /stIgmUH/
- British English – /stIgmUH/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˈstɪɡmə/
- British English – /ˈstɪɡmə/
- Plural: stigmas
- While stigma is typically seen as negative, it can also be seen as “positive” i.e. something that benefits an individual (e.g., praise for being wealthy or beautiful).
- Also called social stigma.
- Sex and Gender Resources – Books, Journals, and Helpful Links
- Word origin of “stigma” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Chan, Kit Yee, Arattha Rungpueng, and Daniel D. Reidpath. 2009. “AIDS and the Stigma of Sexual Promiscuity: Thai Nurses’ Risk Perceptions of Occupational Exposure to HIV.” Culture, Health and Sexuality 11(4):353–68. doi:10.1080/13691050802621161.
- Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Green, Gill. 2009. The End of Stigma? Changes in the Experience of Long-term Illness. London: Routledge.
- Howarth, Caroline. 2006. “Race as Stigma: Positioning the Stigmatized as Agents, Not Objects.” Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 16(6):442–51. doi:10.1002/casp.898.
- Hunt, Paul. 1966. Stigma: The Experience of Disability. London: Chapman.
- Nettleton, Sarah. 2013. The Sociology of Health and Illness. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.
- Schur, Edwin M. 1983. Labeling Women Deviant: Gender, Stigma, and Social Control. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- Takahashi, Lois. 1998. Homelessness, AIDS, and Stigmatization: The NIMBY Syndrome in the United States at the End of the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Andersen, Margaret L., and Howard Francis Taylor. 2011. Sociology: The Essentials. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Bradby, Hannah. 2009. Medical Sociology: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Dillon, Michele. 2014. Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-first Century. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ferrante, Joan. 2011. Sociology: A Global Perspective. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Giddens, Anthony, and Philip W. Sutton. 2014. Essential Concepts in Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Griffiths, Heather, Nathan Keirns, Eric Strayer, Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Gail Scaramuzzo, Tommy Sadler, Sally Vyain, Jeff Bry, Faye Jones. 2016. Introduction to Sociology 2e. Houston, TX: OpenStax.
Henslin, James M. 2012. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. 10th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Jary, David, and Julia Jary. 2000. Collins Dictionary of Sociology. 3rd ed. Glasgow, Scotland: HarperCollins.
Kimmel, Michael S., and Amy Aronson. 2012. Sociology Now. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Kornblum, William. 2008. Sociology in a Changing World. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Macionis, John. 2012. Sociology. 14th ed. Boston: Pearson.
Macionis, John, and Kenneth Plummer. 2012. Sociology: A Global Introduction. 4th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Macmillan. (N.d.) Macmillan Dictionary. (https://www.macmillandictionary.com/).
Marsh, Ian, and Mike Keating, eds. 2006. Sociology: Making Sense of Society. 3rd ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Random House Webster’s College Dictionary. 1997. New York: Random House.
Schaefer, Richard. 2013. Sociology: A Brief Introduction. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Scott, John, and Gordon Marshall. 2005. A Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Shepard, Jon M. 2010. Sociology. 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Shepard, Jon M., and Robert W. Greene. 2003. Sociology and You. New York: Glencoe.
Stewart, Paul, and Johan Zaaiman, eds. 2015. Sociology: A Concise South African Introduction. Cape Town: Juta.
Stolley, Kathy S. 2005. The Basics of Sociology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Taylor & Francis. (N.d.) Routledge Handbooks Online. (https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/).
Thompson, William E., and Joseph V. Hickey. 2012. Society in Focus: An Introduction to Sociology. 7th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Thorpe, Christopher, Chris Yuill, Mitchell Hobbs, Sarah Tomley, and Marcus Weeks. 2015. The Sociology Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained. London: Dorling Kindersley.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).
Wiley. (N.d.) Wiley Online Library. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/).
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “stigma.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved August 6, 2020 (https://sociologydictionary.org/stigma/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
stigma. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/stigma/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “stigma.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://sociologydictionary.org/stigma/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“stigma.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 6 Aug. 2020. <https://sociologydictionary.org/stigma/>.