(*noun*) When no association exists between two variables.

**Audio Pronunciation:** (sta·tis·ti·cal in·de·pen·dence)

**Download Audio Pronunciation:** statistical independence.mp3

**Usage Notes:**

- Plural:
**statistical independences**

**Additional Information:**

- Quantitative Research Resources – Books, Journals, and Helpful Links
- Word origin of “statistical” and “independence” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com

**Related Terms: **

- attribute
- cohort
- control group
- correlation
- data
- empirical evidence
- experimental group
- negative correlation
- positive correlation
- random sample
- reliability
- statistics
- statistical analysis
- survey

**Works Consulted**

Babbie, Earl. 2013. *The Practice of Social Research*. 13th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Bryman, Alan. 2012. *Social Research Methods*. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Burdess, Neil. 2010. *Starting Statistics: A Short, Clear Guide*. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Cramer, Duncan, and Dennis Howitt. 2004. *The SAGE Dictionary of Statistics: A Practical Resource for Students in the Social Sciences*. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Farlex. (N.d.) *TheFreeDictionary.com: Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus*. Farlex. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/).

Fioramonti, Lorenzo. 2014. *How Numbers Rule the World: The Use and Abuse of Statistics in Global Politics*. London: Zed Books.

Larson, Ron, and Elizabeth Farber. 2015. *Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World*. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.

Oxford University Press. (N.d.)* Oxford Dictionaries*. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).

Salkind, Neil J., ed. 2007. *Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics*. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Taylor & Francis. (N.d.) *Routledge Handbooks Online*. (https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/).

Weinstein, Jay A. 2010. *Applying Social Statistics: An Introduction to Quantitative Reasoning in Sociology*. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.)* Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia*. Wikimedia Foundation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/).

Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.)* Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary*. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).

Wiley. (N.d.) *Wiley Online Library*. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/).

**How to Cite the Definition of Statistical Independence**

ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)

Seaman, C. E. 2015. “statistical independence.” In *Open Education Sociology Dictionary*, edited by Kenton Bell. Retrieved March 25, 2019 (http://sociologydictionary.org/statistical-independence/).

APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)

Seaman, C. E. (2015). statistical independence. In K. Bell (Ed.), *Open education sociology dictionary*. Retrieved from http://sociologydictionary.org/statistical-independence/

#### Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)

Seaman, C. E. 2015. “statistical independence.” In* Open Education Sociology Dictionary*, edited by Kenton Bell. Accessed March 25, 2019. http://sociologydictionary.org/statistical-independence/.

MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)

Seaman, C. E. “statistical independence.” *Open Education Sociology Dictionary*. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2015. Web. 25 Mar. 2019. <http://sociologydictionary.org/statistical-independence/>.