Definition of Out-group
Example of Out-group
- The visiting team (opposed to the home team or in-group) including their fans during a game of football.
Syllabification: out group
- American English – /OUt-groop/
- British English – /OUt-groop/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˈaʊtˌɡrup/
- British English – /ˈaʊtɡruːp/
- Plural: out-groups
- An out-group is “them”, in “us versus them”.
- Out-group homogeneity effect describes the tendency to think everyone in an out-group are nearly identical and any differences perceived as minor.
- Out-group is the opposite of in-group. One’s person’s outgroup is another person’s ingroup.
- Variant spellings:
- out group
- Word origin of “out” and “group” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Coser, Lewis A. 1956. The Functions of Social Conflict. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
- Hinton, S. E.  2007. The Outsiders. 40th Anniversary ed. New York: Viking Press.
- Sherif, Muzafer.  1988. The Robber’s Cave Study. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Andersen, Margaret L., and Howard Francis Taylor. 2011. Sociology: The Essentials. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Brym, Robert J., and John Lie. 2007. Sociology: Your Compass for a New World. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Collins English Dictionary: Complete and Unabridged. 6th ed. 2003. Glasgow, Scotland: Collins.
Dillon, Michele. 2014. Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-First Century. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ferrante, Joan. 2011a. Seeing Sociology: An Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ferrante, Joan. 2011b. Sociology: A Global Perspective. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ferris, Kerry, and Jill Stein. 2010. The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology. 2nd ed. New York: Norton.
Griffiths, Heather, Nathan Keirns, Eric Strayer, Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Gail Scaramuzzo, Tommy Sadler, Sally Vyain, Jeff Bry, Faye Jones. 2016. Introduction to Sociology 2e. Houston, TX: OpenStax.
Henslin, James M. 2012. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. 10th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Hughes, Michael, and Carolyn J. Kroehler. 2011. Sociology: The Core. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kendall, Diana. 2011. Sociology in Our Times. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Kimmel, Michael S., and Amy Aronson. 2012. Sociology Now. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Kornblum, William. 2008. Sociology in a Changing World. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Macionis, John. 2012. Sociology. 14th ed. Boston: Pearson.
Macmillan. (N.d.) Macmillan Dictionary. (https://www.macmillandictionary.com/).
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Ravelli, Bruce, and Michelle Webber. 2016. Exploring Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson.
Schaefer, Richard. 2013. Sociology: A Brief Introduction. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Shepard, Jon M. 2010. Sociology. 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Shepard, Jon M., and Robert W. Greene. 2003. Sociology and You. New York: Glencoe.
Stolley, Kathy S. 2005. The Basics of Sociology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Thompson, William E., and Joseph V. Hickey. 2012. Society in Focus: An Introduction to Sociology. 7th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/).
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “out-group.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved January 16, 2021 (https://sociologydictionary.org/out-group/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
out-group. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/out-group/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “out-group.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed January 16, 2021. https://sociologydictionary.org/out-group/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“out-group.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 16 Jan. 2021. <https://sociologydictionary.org/out-group/>.