Definition of Modernization
- American English – /mahd-uhr-nuh-zAY-shuhn/
- British English – /mod-uh-nie-zAY-shuhn/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˌmɑdərnəˈzeɪʃ(ə)n/
- British English – /ˌmɒdn̩ʌɪˈzeɪʃn/
- Plural: modernizations
- “Discourses of underdevelopment and development emerged in the 1940s and became institutionalized in the context of decolonization, the Cold War, and the United States’ struggle for hegemony. A specific blueprint for planned social change (modernization overcoming traditionalism), shaped by Western notions of social evolution, was promoted by the North, adopted by elites in the South, and underpinned the newly established global institutions. These included the United Nations, the development institutions established by the Bretton Woods Agreement signed in July 1944, which became operational in 1946 (the World Bank, made up of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association, and the International Monetary Fund [IMF]), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). That blueprint was articulated around the notion that Third World countries would ‘catch up’ with the First World through economic growth, technological transfer, and Westernization” (Flora and Flora 2007:496).
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ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “modernization.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved February 5, 2023 (https://sociologydictionary.org/modernization/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
modernization. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/modernization/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “modernization.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed February 5, 2023. https://sociologydictionary.org/modernization/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“modernization.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 5 Feb. 2023. <https://sociologydictionary.org/modernization/>.