Definition of Lookism
Example of Lookism
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˈlʊkˌɪzəm/
- British English – /ˈlʊkɪz(ə)m/
- Plural: lookisms
- “[F]avoritism for the attractive and discrimination against the unattractive—creates a structure of unequal opportunity, providing unearned advantages to the attractive and disadvantages to the unattractive. While it is often claimed that ‘beauty is in the eye of the beholder’—that the assessment of attractiveness is a highly subjective matter—in fact there are high levels of agreement about attractiveness that are largely unaffected by the ‘beholder’s’ sex, age, or socioeconomic status. There is even substantial cross-cultural agreement” (McNamee and Miller 2013:208).
- Blaine, Bruce Evan. 2007. Understanding the Psychology of Diversity. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
- Etcoff, Nancy L. 1999. Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. New York: Doubleday.
- Hamermesh, Daniel S. 2013. Beauty Pays: Why Attractive People are More Successful. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Miller, Alan S., and Satoshi Kanazawa. 2007. Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters: From Dating, Shopping, and Praying to Going to War and Becoming a Billionaire: Two Evolutionary Psychologists Explain Why We Do What We Do. New York: Penguin Books.
- O’Brien, Jodi, ed. 2009. Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Vol. 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
- Sargeant, Malcolm. 2011. Age Discrimination and Diversity: Multiple Discrimination from an Age Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McNamee, Stephen J., and Robert K. Miller. 2013. The Meritocracy Myth. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “lookism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved October 21, 2021 (https://sociologydictionary.org/lookism/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
lookism. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/lookism/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “lookism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed October 21, 2021. https://sociologydictionary.org/lookism/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“lookism.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 21 Oct. 2021. <https://sociologydictionary.org/lookism/>.