Definition of Longitudinal Study
(noun) A study that collects data on the same units of analysis at two or more time periods, or from comparable units of analysis across different age cohorts at one point in time, with the primary aim of observing phenomena over time.
Examples of Longitudinal Study
- The Up Series, a documentary which started in 1964 that tracked fourteen children starting at age seven into adulthood at seven-year intervals.
- The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children by the University of Bristol.
Longitudinal Study Pronunciation
Syllabification: lon·gi·tu·di·nal stu·dy
- American English – /lahn-juh-tOO-duh-nuhl stUHd-ee/
- British English – /lon-ji-tyOO-duh-nuhl stUHd-ee/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˌlɑnʤəˈtudənəl ˈstʌdi/
- British English – /ˌlɒnʤɪˈtjuːdɪnl ˈstʌdi/
- Plural: longitudinal studies
- Longitudinal studies are typically expensive over a long span of time and require the long-term commitment of researchers and subjects.
- Attrition affects longitudinal studies. To negate the affects of attrition, the initial sample size must be quite large, which causes added expense and time.
- Participating in a longitudinal study can affect an individual’s behavior and affect the validity of the sample as representative of the population, a phenomenon called the Hawthorne Effect.
- A cross-sectional study is the opposite of a longitudinal study. The primary advantage of a longitudinal study over a cross-sectional study is that a causal relationship can be determined by longitudinal data but not by cross-sectional data, therefore, can track change. A cross-sequential study combines longitudinal and cross-sectional studies.
- descriptive statistics
- empirical evidence
- independent variable
- inferential statistics
- random sample
Contributor: C. E. Seaman
Babbie, Earl. 2013. The Practice of Social Research. 13th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Bryman, Alan. 2012. Social Research Methods. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Burdess, Neil. 2010. Starting Statistics: A Short, Clear Guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Clarke, Alan. 2010. The Sociology of Healthcare. 2nd ed. Harlow, England: Longman.
Cramer, Duncan, and Dennis Howitt. 2004. The SAGE Dictionary of Statistics: A Practical Resource for Students in the Social Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Fioramonti, Lorenzo. 2014. How Numbers Rule the World: The Use and Abuse of Statistics in Global Politics. London: Zed Books.
Kimmel, Michael S., and Amy Aronson. 2012. Sociology Now. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Larson, Ron, and Elizabeth Farber. 2015. Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Salkind, Neil J., ed. 2007. Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Weinstein, Jay A. 2010. Applying Social Statistics: An Introduction to Quantitative Reasoning in Sociology. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/).
Wiley. (N.d.) Wiley Online Library. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/).
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Seaman, C. E. 2015. “longitudinal study.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary, edited by Kenton Bell. Retrieved September 27, 2022 (https://sociologydictionary.org/longitudinal-study/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
Seaman, C. E. (2015). longitudinal study. In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/longitudinal-study/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Seaman, C. E. 2015. “longitudinal study.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary, edited by Kenton Bell. Accessed September 27, 2022. https://sociologydictionary.org/longitudinal-study/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
Seaman, C. E. “longitudinal study.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2015. Web. 27 Sep. 2022. <https://sociologydictionary.org/longitudinal-study/>.