Example: The home team (opposed to the visiting team or out-group) including their fans during a a game of football.
Audio Pronunciation: (in-group)
Download Audio Pronunciation: in-group.mp3
- Plural: in-groups
- Term coined (along with ethnocentrism, folkways, and mores) by William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) in Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals.
- Variant form: ingroup
- Also called:
- inner circle
- “Empirical evidence suggests that a predisposition to favor in-groups can be easily triggered by even arbitrary group distinctions and that preferential cooperation within groups occurs even when it is individually costly” (Hammond and Axelrod 2006).
- “Ethnocentrism is a nearly universal syndrome of attitudes and behaviors, typically including in-group favoritism” (Hammond and Axelrod 2006:926).
- Coser, Lewis A. 1956. The Functions of Social Conflict. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Hammond, Ross A., and Robert Axelrod. 2006. “The Evolution of Ethnocentrism.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution : A Quarterly for Research Related to War and Peace. 50(6): 926-936.
OpenStax College. 2012. Types of Groups. Connexions, June 13, 2012. (http://cnx.org/content/m42831/1.4/).