(noun) The foraging of uncultivated plants and undomesticated animals for subsistence.
Audio Pronunciation: (hunt·ing and gath·er·ing)
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- Hunter-gatherer societies are the earliest forms of social organization and are nomadic with strong kinship ties.
- A hunter-gatherer society is compared and contrasted with an agrarian society and horticultural society.
- Hunting and gathering is a primary subsistence strategy along with agriculture; horticulture; industrialism; pastoralism; and slash-and-burn.
- Variant form: hunting-and-gathering
- Ecological and Environmental Resources – Books, Journals, and Helpful Links
- Food and Agriculture Resources – Books, Journals, and Helpful Links
- Word origin of “hunting” and “gathering” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Brody, Hugh. 2001. The Other Side of Eden: Hunter-gatherers, Farmers and the Shaping of the World. London: Faber.
- Cartmill, Matt. 1993. A View to a Death in the Morning: Hunting and Nature Through History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Harding, Robert S. O., and Geza Teleki. 1981. Omnivorous Primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Harris, David R., and Gordon C. Hillman. 1989. Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation. London: Unwin Hyman.
- Maisels, Charles Keith. 1993. The Emergence of Civilization: From Hunting and Gathering to Agriculture, Cities, and the State in the Near East. London: Routledge.
- Morrison, Kathleen D., and Laura L. Junker. 2002. Forager-Traders in South and Southeast Asia: Long-Term Histories. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- O’Hanlon, Michael, and Robert Louis Welsch. 2000. Hunting the Gatherers: Ethnographic Collectors, Agents and Agency in Melanesia, 1870s-1930s. New York: Berghahn Books.
- Miracle, Preston T., Lynn E. Fisher, and Jody Brown. 1991. Foragers in Context: Long-term, Regional and Historical Perspectives in Hunter-gatherer Studies. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
- cultural ecology
- cultural environment
- physical environment
- slash and burn
- subsistence strategy
How to Cite the Definition of Hunting and Gathering
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “hunting and gathering.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved March 26, 2019 (http://sociologydictionary.org/hunting-and-gathering/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
hunting and gathering. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from http://sociologydictionary.org/hunting-and-gathering/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “hunting and gathering.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed March 26, 2019. http://sociologydictionary.org/hunting-and-gathering/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“hunting and gathering.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 26 Mar. 2019. <http://sociologydictionary.org/hunting-and-gathering/>.