Definition of Holism
(noun) The principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts and a part cannot be understood independent of the whole.
- American English – /hOH-liz-uhm/
- British English – /hOH-li-zuhm/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˈhoʊlˌɪzəm/
- British English – /ˈhɒlɪz(ə)m/
- Holism is more common in the social sciences than the natural sciences.
- Holism is the opposite of reductionism.
- Research methods are often viewed as holistic (qualitative) or reductionistic (quantitative).
- Variant spelling: wholism
- Also called holistic theory.
- A (noun) holist views society (adverb) holistically from a (adjective) holistic perspective.
- Word origin of “holism” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Descombes, Vincent. 2014. The Institutions of Meaning: A Defense of Anthropological Holism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Macmillan. (N.d.) Macmillan Dictionary. (https://www.macmillandictionary.com/).
Merriam-Webster. (N.d.) Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/).
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Princeton University. 2010. WordNet. (https://wordnet.princeton.edu/).
Random House Webster’s College Dictionary. 1997. New York: Random House.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2014. “holism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved July 27, 2021 (https://sociologydictionary.org/holism/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
holism. (2014). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/holism/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2014. “holism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed July 27, 2021. https://sociologydictionary.org/holism/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“holism.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2014. Web. 27 Jul. 2021. <https://sociologydictionary.org/holism/>.