(noun) When a person’s awareness of being observed changes their behavior in some way.
Example: When workers’ productivity improves when being watched by their boss.
Audio Pronunciation: (Haw·thorne ef·fect)
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- Plural: Hawthorne effects
- Named for a productivity study conducted in late 1920s and early 1930s at the Hawthorne Works, a plant of Western Electric located outside of Chicago, Illinois, United States.
- Also called:
- experimenter effect
- observer effect
- “Variously defined, the central idea is that behavior during the course of an experiment can be altered by a subject’s awareness of participating in the experiment (Jones 1992:451).
- Adair, John G. 1989. “Hawthorne Control Procedures in Educational Experiments: A Reconsideration of Their Use and Effectiveness.” Review of Educational Research 59(2):215–28.
- Adair, John G. 1984. “The Hawthorne Effect: A Reconsideration of the Methodological Artifact.” Journal of Applied Psychology Journal of Applied Psychology 69(2):334–45.
- Lee, Raymond M. 2011. “‘The Most Important Technique …’: Carl Rogers, Hawthorne, and the Rise and Fall of Nondirective Interviewing in Sociology.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 47(2):123–46.
- Mahoney, Kevin T., and David B. Baker. 2002. “Elton Mayo and Carl Rogers: A Tale of Two Techniques.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 60(3):437–50.
- Mason, Emanuel J., and William J. Bramble. 1997. Research in Education and the Behavioral Sciences: Concepts and Methods. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark Publishers.
Jones, Stephen R. G. 1992. “Was There a Hawthorne Effect?” American Journal of Sociology 98(3):451–68.