(noun) The planned or unplanned process by which wealthy or affluent individuals in the middle class displace poorer individuals in traditionally working class or poor neighborhoods by purchasing property and upgrading it through renovation and modernization.
Example: In a large metropolitan city, white-collar workers move into a blue-collar neighborhood to take advantage of lower property costs and proximity to developing industries. The new residents with disposable income repaint houses, build pools, and add on garages thus driving up property values and taxes which forces older residents to move out of the neighborhood due to economic restraints.
Audio Pronunciation: (gen·tri·fi·ca·tion)
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- Plural: gentrifications
- Coined by Ruth Class in London: Aspects of Change (1964) in reference to the arrival of gentry–which is a historic term connoting individuals with high status and wealth–to areas of central London in the 1960s.
- Loretta Lees coined the term super-gentrification in “Super-Gentrification: The Case of Brooklyn Heights, New York City” (2003) to describe areas “that have become the focus of intense investment and conspicuous consumption by a new generation of super-rich ‘financifiers’ fed by fortunes from the global finance and corporate service industries” (Lees 2003:2487).
- Also called urban recycling.
- An area is (adjective) gentrified through gentrification by a (noun) gentrifier who (verb) gentrifies.
- Word origin of “gentrification” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Atkinson, Rowland, and Gary Bridge, eds. 2005. Gentrification in a Global Context: The New Urban Colonialism. London: Routledge.
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- Brown-Saracino, Japonica, ed. 2010. The Gentrification Debates: A Reader. London: Routledge.
- Corburn, Jason. 2009. Toward the Healthy City People, Places, and the Politics of Urban Planning. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.
- Caro, Robert A. 1974. The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. New York: Knopf.
- Freeman, Lance. 2006. There Goes the ‘Hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground Up. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- Fyfe, Nicholas R., and Judith T. Kenny, eds. 2005. The Urban Geography Reader. London: Routledge.
- Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.
- Katz, M. B. 2001. The Price of Citizenship: Redefining American Welfare State. New York: Metropolitan Books.
- Lang, Robert E., and Rebecca R. Sohmer. 2000. “Legacy of the Housing Act of 1949: The Past, Present, and Future of Federal Housing and Urban Policy.” Housing Policy Debate 11(2):291–98.
- Laska, Shirley Bradway, and Daphne Spain. 1980. Back to the City: Issues in Neighborhood Renovation.
- Lees, Loretta, Elvin K. Wyly, and Tom Slater, eds. 2010. The Gentrification Reader. London: Routledge.
- Martinez, Miranda J. 2010. Power at the Roots: Gentrification, Community gardens, and the Puerto Ricans of the Lower East Side. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
- Smith, Neil, and Peter Williams. 1986. Gentrification of the City. London: Allen & Unwin.
- Sorkin, Michael. 2009. Twenty Minutes in Manhattan. London: Reaktion.
- Wilson, James, and George Kelling. 1982. “Broken Windows.” Atlantic Monthly 249(3):29–36, 38.
- 50 Years of Gentrification – A Timeline: nextcity.org
- Gentrification – The Controversal Topic of Gentrification and Its Impact on the Urban Core: geography.about.com
- Gentrification – “Website regarding the urban geography process of gentrification”: sites.google.com
- bedroom community
- urban renewal
- white flight
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How to Cite the Definition of Gentrification
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “gentrification.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved January 23, 2019 (http://sociologydictionary.org/gentrification/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
gentrification. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from http://sociologydictionary.org/gentrification/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “gentrification.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed January 23, 2019. http://sociologydictionary.org/gentrification/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“gentrification.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 23 Jan. 2019. <http://sociologydictionary.org/gentrification/>.