Definition of Functionalism
(noun) A theory that views society as a complex but orderly and stable system with interconnected structures and functions or social patterns that operate to meet the needs of individuals in a society.
Examples of Functionalism
- aging (disengagement theory): As people age they gradually withdraw from society and are relieved of responsibilities, providing an orderly transition between generations. This shift justifies the discrimination (ageism) older people experience as they become less useful to society.
- deviance: Creates social solidarity by branding some behaviors as deviant. Those that are labeled deviant will develop a collective identity.
- education: Transmits knowledge to the next generation, teaching good citizenship, and preparation for future work.
- family: Provides reproduction and protection of children; as a primary agent of socialization fosters understanding of expected behaviors, norms, and values.
- American English – /fUHngshnUH-liz-uhm/
- British English – /fUHngkshUH-nuh-li-zuhm/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˈfəŋ(k)ʃənlˌɪz(ə)m/
- British English – /ˈfʌŋ(k)ʃn̩l̩ɪz(ə)m/
- The basic assumption of functionalism is that all structures, particularly institutions within society serve a purpose or function, contributing the stability of the social system.
- Functionalism emphasizes that social stability and order comes from shared behaviors, norms, and values.
- Deviance leads to change as society must adapt to maintain or achieve stability.
- Dysfunctions within society negatively affect all other parts and create social problems.
- Functionalism originates in the work of Auguste Comte (1798–1857) and Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who was interested in social order and how how societies maintain stability over time. Durkheim suggested that society was more than the sum of its constituent parts, with each part providing stability and in someway relying on all other aspects of society.
- To understand functionalism think of different aspects of society as parts of the human body, each part serving a purpose.
- Robert Merton (1910–2003) furthered the developed of functionalism, building on Durkheim and Parsons, contending there are two types of functions: latent functions and manifest functions.
- Criticisms of functionalism:
- Functionalism understates the power imbalances and the role of conflict within society.
- Functionalism is far too conservative and accepting of the status quo, particularly inequality.
- Functionalist counterpoint: Inequality serves a purpose as it promotes solidarity among the affected classes and incentives people to work and improve themselves.
- Functionalism is a macrosociological perspective.
- Functionalism along with conflict theory and symbolic interactionism are the typical perspectives studied in sociology, but postmodern perspectives are challenging this tradition.
- Functionalist Scholar include:
- Émile Durkheim (1858–1917)
- Robert Merton (1910–2003)
- Talcott Parsons (1902–1979)
- Also called:
- functionalist perspective
- functionalist theory
- social systems theory
- structural functionalism
- “According to [functionalism], a society is composed of interrelated parts, each of which serves a function and (ideally) contributes to the overall stability of the society. Societies develop social structures, or institutions, that persist because they play a part in helping society survive. These institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy. If anything adverse happens to one of these institutions or parts, all other parts are affected and the system no longer functions properly” (Kendall 2006:15).
- “Functionalist perspectives assume that society is a stable, orderly system characterized by societal consensus” (Kendall 2006:37).
- “Postmodern theorists, believe that entirely new ways of examining social life are needed and that it is time to move beyond functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches” (Kendall 2006:37).
- Economic Sociology Resources – Books, Journals, and Helpful Links
- Word origin of “functionalism” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Faia, Michael A. 1986. Dynamic Functionalism. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Gans, Herbert. 1972. “The Positive Functions of Poverty.” American Journal of Sociology 78(2):275–89. doi:10.1086/225324.
- Isajiw, Wsevolod W. 1968. Causation and Functionalism in Sociology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
- Lukes, Steven, and W. D. Halls, eds. Durkheim: The Rules of Sociological Method. New York: Free Press.
- Malinowski, Bronisław. 1944. Scientific Theory of Culture and Other Essays. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
- Parsons, Talcott. 1951. The Social System. London: Collier Macmillan.
- conflict theory
- latent function
- manifest function
- symbolic interactionism
Kendall, Diana. 2006. Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill, and Bryan Turner. 2006. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London: Penguin.
Andersen, Margaret L., and Howard Francis Taylor. 2011. Sociology: The Essentials. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Bilton, Tony, Kevin Bonnett, Pip Jones, David Skinner, Michelle Stanworth, and Andrew Webster. 1996. Introductory Sociology. 3rd ed. London: Macmillan.
Bruce, Steve, and Steven Yearley. 2006. The SAGE Dictionary of Sociology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Brym, Robert J., and John Lie. 2007. Sociology: Your Compass for a New World. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Delaney, Tim, and Tim Madigan. 2015. The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Dillon, Michele. 2014. Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-first Century. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ferris, Kerry, and Jill Stein. 2010. The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology. 2nd ed. New York: Norton.
Griffiths, Heather, Nathan Keirns, Eric Strayer, Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Gail Scaramuzzo, Tommy Sadler, Sally Vyain, Jeff Bry, Faye Jones. 2016. Introduction to Sociology 2e. Houston, TX: OpenStax.
Henslin, James M. 2012. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. 10th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Jary, David, and Julia Jary. 2000. Collins Dictionary of Sociology. 3rd ed. Glasgow, Scotland: HarperCollins.
Kimmel, Michael S., and Amy Aronson. 2012. Sociology Now. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Kornblum, William. 2008. Sociology in a Changing World. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Macionis, John, and Kenneth Plummer. 2012. Sociology: A Global Introduction. 4th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Macmillan. (N.d.) Macmillan Dictionary. (https://www.macmillandictionary.com/).
Marsh, Ian, and Mike Keating, eds. 2006. Sociology: Making Sense of Society. 3rd ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
O’Leary, Zina. 2007. The Social Science Jargon Buster: The Key Terms You Need to Know. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Schaefer, Richard. 2013. Sociology: A Brief Introduction. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Scott, John, and Gordon Marshall. 2005. A Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Shepard, Jon M. 2010. Sociology. 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Shepard, Jon M., and Robert W. Greene. 2003. Sociology and You. New York: Glencoe.
Stewart, Paul, and Johan Zaaiman, eds. 2015. Sociology: A Concise South African Introduction. Cape Town: Juta.
Stolley, Kathy S. 2005. The Basics of Sociology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Thompson, William E., and Joseph V. Hickey. 2012. Society in Focus: An Introduction to Sociology. 7th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Thorpe, Christopher, Chris Yuill, Mitchell Hobbs, Sarah Tomley, and Marcus Weeks. 2015. The Sociology Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained. London: Dorling Kindersley.
Tischler, Henry L. 2011. Introduction to Sociology. 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Turner, Bryan S., ed. 2006. The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).
Cite the Definition of Functionalism
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “functionalism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved April 1, 2023 (https://sociologydictionary.org/functionalism/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
functionalism. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/functionalism/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “functionalism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed April 1, 2023. https://sociologydictionary.org/functionalism/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“functionalism.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 1 Apr. 2023. <https://sociologydictionary.org/functionalism/>.