Definitions of Feminism
- (noun) The idea that women and men should have equal legal and political rights, sexual autonomy, and self-determination (agency).
- (noun) A social movement that advocates for economic, political, and social equality between women and men.
- (noun) A theoretical perspective stating women are uniquely and systematically oppressed and that challenges ideas of gender and sex roles.
Waves of Feminism
- First-wave Feminism: A movement that began in the Enlightenment and gained momentum in the mid-19th century, seeking voting rights and educational access for women in response to abolitionism and the temperance movement.
- Second-wave Feminism: A radical revival of feminism in the 1960s and associated with the civil rights movement and antiwar movement leading to the women’s liberation movement and reforms in abortion and equal pay legislation and challenging the objectification of women through pornography. Influential works include:
- The Second Sex (1949) by Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986)
- The Feminine Mystique (1963) by Betty Friedan (1921–2006)
- Sexual Politics (1969) by Katherine “Kate” Millet (1934–2017)
- The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution (1970) by Shulamith Firestone (1945–2012)
- The Female Eunuch (1970) by Germaine Greer (born 1939)
- Sex, Gender, and Society by Ann Oakley (born 1944)
- Third-wave Feminism: A reaction to early feminism influenced by postmodernism and poststructuralism arising in the 1990s, recognizing a plurality of experiences for women based on class, ethnicity, gender, location, and sexual identity. Third Wave Feminism was critical of the existing feminist scholarship that focused primarily on white, affluent, and heterosexual women. Influential works include:
- In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development (1982) by Carol Gilligan (born 1936)
- Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (1984) by bell hooks (born 1952)
- Feminist Practice and Post-structuralist Theory (1987) by Chris Weedon (born 1952)
- Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory (1989) by Nancy Chodorow (born 1944)
- Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment (1990) by Patricia Hill Collins (born 1948)
- Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1990) by Judith Butler (born 1956)
- Destabilizing Theory: Contemporary Feminist Debates (1992) by Michèle Barrett (?) and Anne Phillip (born 1950)
Types of Feminism
- Analytic Feminism
- Continental Feminism
- Cultural Feminism
- Liberal Feminism
- Marxist Feminism
- Psychoanalytic Feminism
- Radical Feminism
- American English – /fEm-uh-niz-uhm/
- British English – /fE-mi-ni-zuhm/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˈfɛməˌnɪzəm/
- British English – /ˈfɛmᵻnɪz(ə)m/
- Plural: feminisms
- There is no single theory of feminism or a definition of feminism that is universally accepted, leading to the plural term feminisms.
- The origins of feminism are debated but often traced to the book A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) which was written in response to The Rights of Man (1771) by Thomas Paine (1737–1809). Wollstonecraft’s work was consciousness raising and inspired women to seek equal rights with men, particularly voting rights through the suffragette movement and access to education.
- Early women’s activists from the United States include:
- Also called:
- Definition 1:
- feminist perspective
- Definition 2:
- feminist movement
- Definition 3:
- feminist approach
- feminist methodology
- feminist paradigm
- feminist social theory
- feminist theory
- Definition 1:
- “Feminism explicitly examines women’s roles and experiences in society, working to fully uncover women’s contributions to social life and the nature of the structures and processes that maintain gender inequality” (Hughes and Kroehler 2008:17).
- “Feminism is the exploration of the experiences of different women. And just as feminists speak out against sexism and discrimination against women as a group, feminists speak out against bias and discrimination against particular groups of women” (Kaufman and Kimmel 2011:132).
- “Sexual harassment is not only an indicator of the continuing dominance of men in the workplace but a form of discrimination that jeopardizes women’s chances for occupational success and impinges upon their pursuit of the American Dream” (McNamee and Miller 2013:199).
- “Sociological feminism begins with the observation that for most of the history of sociology women hardly appear in social theory and research. Men’s experiences have been viewed as universal and women’s activities and experiences have been hidden” (Hughes and Kroehler 2008:17).
- “The feminist perspective assumes that gender is socially created, rather than determined by one’s biological inheritance, and that change is essential in order for people to achieve their human potential without limits based on gender. It also assumes that society reinforces social expectations through social learning, which is acquired through social institutions such as education, religion, and the political and economic structure of society” (Kendall 2006:18).
- “‘The personal is political‘ is a powerful slogan that was coined during the women’s movement of the 1960s and 1970s. It means that what happens in our individual, private lives—at places such as our jobs, clubs, homes, or schools—reflects the power dynamics in broader, public society. As the twentieth-century political scientist Harold Lasswell famously said, politics is the process of who gets what, when, and how. Feminism brings that concept from the public realm into our personal worlds. It recognizes that seemingly personal issues point to larger, institutionalized practices and are therefore legitimately political issues. Another way to understand this concept is to ask questions such as who gets the goods and resources in society and who bears the burdens? Who sits in positions of power in Fortune 500 companies and who cleans the company offices? Who does the bulk of parenting and who gets paid more on the job? Who is sexually bought and who buys sexual access to bodies? Who is statistically more likely to experience domestic violence and who are the violent offenders? Who gets catcalled on the street? And while we’re at it, we can ask who risks their lives in war. Who makes the decisions to go to war in the first place?” (Tarrant 2009:8–9).
- “There is an ordering of versions of femininity and masculinity at the level of the whole society, in some ways analogous to the patterns of face-to-face relations with institution. The possibilities of variation, of course, are vastly greater. The sheer complexity of relationships involving millions of people guarantees that ethnic differences and generational differences as well as class patterns come into play. But in key aspects the organization of gender on the very large scale must be more skeletal and simplified than the human relationships in face-to-face milieux. The forms of femininity and masculinity constituted at this level are stylized and impoverished. Their interrelation is centred on the single structural fact, the global dominance of men over women” (Connell 1987:183).
- Sex and Gender Resources – Books, Journals, and Helpful Links
- Word origin of “feminism” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Allison, Julie A., and Lawrence S. Wrightsman. 1993. Rape: The Misunderstood Crime. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
- Baaz, Maria Eriksson, and Maria Stern. 2013. Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? Perceptions, Prescriptions, Problems in the Congo and Beyond. London: Zed Books.
- Babcock, Barbara Allen. 1996. Sex Discrimination and the Law: History, Practice, and Theory. 2nd ed. Boston: Little, Brown.
- Conboy, Katie, Nadia Medina, and Sarah Stanbury. 1997. Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Cushman, Clare, ed. 2011. Supreme Court Decisions and Women’s Rights: Milestones to Equality. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
- de Beauvoir, Simone.  1952. The Second Sex. New York: Vintage.
- D’Emilio, John, William B. Turner, and Urvashi Vaid. 2000. Creating Change: Sexuality, Public Policy, and Civil Rights. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
- Freedman, Estelle B. 2003. No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women. New York: Ballantine Books.
- Friedan, Betty. 1963. The Feminine Mystique. London: Gollancz.
- Greer, Germaine. 1970. The Female Eunuch. London: Paladin.
- Kolmar, Wendy K., and Frances Bartkowski. 2013. Feminist Theory: A Reader. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
- LeMoncheck, Linda, and James P. Sterba. 2001. Sexual Harassment: Issues and Answers. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Mill, John Stuart, and Harriet Taylor Mill.  1885. The Subjection of Women. New York: H. Holt.
- Parrot, Andrea, and Laurie Bechhofer. 1991. Acquaintance Rape: The Hidden Crime. New York: Wiley.
- Press, Andrea, and Elizabeth Cole. 1999. Speaking of Abortion: Television and Authority in the Lives of Women. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Schneir, Miriam, ed. 1972. Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings. New York: Random House.
- Schneir, Miriam, ed. 1994. Feminism in Our Time: The Essential Writings, World War II to the Present. New York: Vintage Books.
- Vinciguerra, Marlisa. 1989. “The Aftermath of Meritor: A Search for Standards in the Law of Sexual Harassment.” The Yale Law Journal 98(8):1717–38. doi:10.2307/796614.
Connell, R. W. 1987. Gender and Power: Society, the Person, and Sexual Politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Hughes, Michael, and Carolyn J. Kroehler. 2008. Sociology: The Core. 8th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Kaufman, Michael, and Michael S. Kimmel. 2011. The Guy’s Guide to Feminism. Berkeley, CA: Seal Press.
Kendall, Diana. 2006. Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
McNamee, Stephen J., and Robert K. Miller, Jr. 2013. The Meritocracy Myth. 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Tarrant, Shira. 2009. Men and Feminism. Berkeley, CA: Seal Press.
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Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “feminism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved February 21, 2020 (https://sociologydictionary.org/feminism/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
feminism. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/feminism/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “feminism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed February 21, 2020. https://sociologydictionary.org/feminism/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“feminism.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 21 Feb. 2020. <https://sociologydictionary.org/feminism/>.