Audio Pronunciation: (crim·i·nol·o·gy)
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- Plural: criminologies
- Criminology is viewed as a sub-field of sociology by some and its own discipline by others.
- Also called criminal justice.
- A type of social science.
- Type: penology
- A specialist in criminology is a (noun) criminologist and studies (adjective) criminologic or (adjective) criminological information (adverb) criminologically.
- Word origin of “criminology” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Foucault, Michel, and Alan Sheridan. 1995. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books.
- Hagan, John, A. R. Gillis, and David Brownfield. 1996. Criminological Controversies a Methodological Primer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
- Henshel, Richard L., and Robert A. Silverman. 1975. Perception in Criminology. New York: Columbia University Press.
Andersen, Margaret L., and Howard Francis Taylor. 2011. Sociology: The Essentials. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Briggs, Steven M., and Joan Friedman. 2009. Criminology For Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Collins English Dictionary: Complete and Unabridged. 6th ed. 2003. Glasgow, Scotland: Collins.
Farlex. (N.d.) TheFreeDictionary.com: Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus. Farlex. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/).
Kendall, Diane. 2011. Sociology in Our Times. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Macmillan. (N.d.) Macmillan Dictionary. (https://www.macmillandictionary.com/).
Merriam-Webster. (N.d.) Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/).
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Princeton University. 2010. WordNet. (http://wordnet.princeton.edu/wordnet/).
Random House Webster’s College Dictionary. 1997. New York: Random House.
Ravelli, Bruce, and Michelle Webber. 2016. Exploring Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson.
Siegel, Larry J., and Clemens Bartollas. 2011. Corrections Today. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Siegel, Larry J., and John L. Worrall. 2012. Introduction to Criminal Justice. 13th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Siegel, Larry J., and John L. Worrall. 2013. Essentials of Criminal Justice. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Taylor & Francis. (N.d.) Routledge Handbooks Online. (https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/).
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).
Wiley. (N.d.) Wiley Online Library. (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/).
How to Cite the Definition of Criminology
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “criminology.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved March 24, 2019 (http://sociologydictionary.org/criminology/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
criminology. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from http://sociologydictionary.org/criminology/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “criminology.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed March 24, 2019. http://sociologydictionary.org/criminology/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“criminology.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 24 Mar. 2019. <http://sociologydictionary.org/criminology/>.