Definition of Communism
Examples of Communism
Note: There are numerous variations of communism related to different people such as:
- Castroism: Fidel Castro (1926–2016), Cuba
- Leninism (also called Marxism-Leninism): Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924), Russia
- Maoism: Mao Zedong (1893–1976), China
- Marxism: Karl Marx (1818–1883), Germany
- Trotskyism: Leon Trotsky (1879–1940), Russia
- American English – /kAHm-yuh-niz-uhm/
- British English – /kOm-yu-ni-zuhm/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /ˈkɑmjəˌnɪz(ə)m/
- British English – /ˈkɒmjᵿnɪz(ə)m/
- Plural: communisms
- Communism is often compared and contrasted to other economic systems such as capitalism and socialism.
- Also called state monopoly capitalism.
- A (noun) communist advocates for communism.
- “Though Marx is often identified with the communist revolutions and social governments that appeared in many nations in the 20th century, Marx actually had little to say about communism or socialism. Marx was a utopian who centered his attention on capitalism and its internal dynamics, assuming that when socialism replaced capitalism many of the world’s problems would disappear” (Hughes and Kroehler 2008:12).
- Economic Sociology Resources – Books, Journals, and Helpful Links
- Word origin of “communism” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com
- Alexander, Robert J. 1973. Trotskyism in Latin America. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University.
- Callinicos, Alex. 1990. Trotskyism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
- Carlisle, Rodney P., and James H. Lide. 2002. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Communism. Indianapolis: Alpha.
- Harding, Neil. 1996. Leninism. London: Macmillan Press.
- Heilbroner, Robert L. 1980. Marxism: For and Against. New York: Norton.
- Lane, David Stuart. 1981. Leninism: A Sociological Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Llerena, Mario. 1978. The Unsuspected Revolution: The Birth and Rise of Castroism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
- Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels.  2017. The Communist Manifesto. London: Pluto Press.
- Note: Originally titled Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei).
- Meisner, Maurice J. 1982. Marxism, Maoism, and Utopianism: Eight Essays. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
- Pipes, Richard. 2003. Communism: A History. New York: Modern Library.
- Sowell, Thomas. 1985. Marxism: Philosophy and Economics. New York: Morrow.
- Suárez, Andrés. 1967. Cuba: Castroism and Communism, 1959–1966. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Trotsky, Leon. The History of the Russian Revolution.
- Wylie, Raymond Finlay. 1980. The Emergence of Maoism: Mao Tse-tung, Ch’en Po-ta, and the Search for Chinese Theory, 1935–1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- mode of production
- relations to production
- social movement
- Marx, Karl
Hughes, Michael, and Carolyn J. Kroehler. 2008. Sociology: The Core. 8th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill, and Bryan Turner. 2006. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London: Penguin.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 5th ed. 2011. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Andersen, Margaret L., and Howard Francis Taylor. 2011. Sociology: The Essentials. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Bruce, Steve, and Steven Yearley. 2006. The SAGE Dictionary of Sociology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Brym, Robert J., and John Lie. 2007. Sociology: Your Compass for a New World. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Dillon, Michele. 2014. Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-First Century. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ferris, Kerry, and Jill Stein. 2010. The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology. 2nd ed. New York: Norton.
Kimmel, Michael S., and Amy Aronson. 2012. Sociology Now. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, John. 2012. Sociology. 14th ed. Boston: Pearson.
Macionis, John, and Kenneth Plummer. 2012. Sociology: A Global Introduction. 4th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Marsh, Ian, and Mike Keating, eds. 2006. Sociology: Making Sense of Society. 3rd ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
O’Leary, Zina. 2007. The Social Science Jargon Buster: The Key Terms You Need to Know. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Princeton University. 2010. WordNet. (https://wordnet.princeton.edu/).
Ravelli, Bruce, and Michelle Webber. 2016. Exploring Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson.
Schaefer, Richard. 2013. Sociology: A Brief Introduction. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stewart, Paul, and Johan Zaaiman, eds. 2015. Sociology: A Concise South African Introduction. Cape Town: Juta
Thorpe, Christopher, Chris Yuill, Mitchell Hobbs, Sarah Tomley, and Marcus Weeks. 2015. The Sociology Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained. London: Dorling Kindersley.
Tischler, Henry L. 2011. Introduction to Sociology. 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Turner, Bryan S., ed. 2006. The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/).
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wiktionary, The Free Dictionary. Wikimedia Foundation. (http://en.wiktionary.org).
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “communism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved March 5, 2021 (https://sociologydictionary.org/communism/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
communism. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/communism/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “communism.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed March 5, 2021. https://sociologydictionary.org/communism/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“communism.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 5 Mar. 2021. <https://sociologydictionary.org/communism/>.