Definition of Collective Consciousness
Examples of Collective Consciousness
- Gender norms concerning how people dress and act.
- Laws that socialize people into what is “right and wrong” in their society.
- Rituals, such as parades for holidays and weddings.
- Spectators standing before a sporting event to hear a national anthem such as “The Star-Spangled Banner” in the United States which reinforces patriotism and solidarity.
Collective Consciousness Pronunciation
Syllabification: col·lec·tive con·scious·ness
- American English – /kuh-lEk-tiv kAHn-shuh-snuhs/
- British English – /kuh-lEk-tiv kOn-shuh-snis/
International Phonetic Alphabet
- American English – /kəˈlɛktɪv ˈkɑnʃəsnəs/
- British English – /kɒˈlɛktɪv ˈkɒnʃəsnɪs/
- Plural: collective consciousnesses
- Developed by Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), in Division of Labour in Society (1893).
- Collective consciousness informs an individual’s sense of belonging and identity.
- The collective consciousness of a group or society is relived, shared, and passed on by holidays, myths, rituals, and stories.
- Also called:
- collective conscience
- collective conscious
- collective memory
- common consciousness
- conscience collective
- “The totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average members of the same society forms a particular system with a life of its own life; one might call it the collective or common consciousness” (Durkheim  2004:24).
- “Social life derives from a dual source, the similarity of consciousness and the social division of labour. In the first case the individual is socialized because, in the absence of any real individuality, he is united with others with whom he shares a common likeness, becoming part of the same collective type; in the second case, because, while having an appearance and personal activity which distinguish him from others, he is dependent on them to the extent that he is distinguished from them, and consequently upon the society which results from this combination” (Durkheim  2004:32).
- “We can say that an act is criminal when it offends strong and defined states of the collective consciousness . . . In other words, we must not say that an action offends the common consciousness because it is criminal, but rather that it is criminal because it shocks the common consciousness. We do not condemn it because it is a crime, but it is a crime because we condemn it” (Durkheim  2004:24).
Durkheim, Émile.  2004. “The Division of Labour in Society.” Pp. 19–38 in Readings from Emile Durkheim. Rev. ed., edited and translated by K. Thompson. New York: Routledge.
Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill, and Bryan Turner. 2006. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London: Penguin.
Andersen, Margaret L., and Howard Francis Taylor. 2011. Sociology: The Essentials. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Bruce, Steve, and Steven Yearley. 2006. The SAGE Dictionary of Sociology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Brym, Robert J., and John Lie. 2007. Sociology: Your Compass for a New World. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Dillon, Michele. 2014. Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-First Century. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ferrante, Joan. 2011. Sociology: A Global Perspective. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Griffiths, Heather, Nathan Keirns, Eric Strayer, Susan Cody-Rydzewski, Gail Scaramuzzo, Tommy Sadler, Sally Vyain, Jeff Bry, Faye Jones. 2016. Introduction to Sociology 2e. Houston, TX: OpenStax.
Henslin, James M. 2012. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. 10th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Jary, David, and Julia Jary. 2000. Collins Dictionary of Sociology. 3rd ed. Glasgow, Scotland: HarperCollins.
Marsh, Ian, and Mike Keating, eds. 2006. Sociology: Making Sense of Society. 3rd ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Oxford University Press. (N.d.) Oxford Dictionaries. (https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/).
Ravelli, Bruce, and Michelle Webber. 2016. Exploring Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson.
Scott, John, and Gordon Marshall. 2005. A Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, Paul, and Johan Zaaiman, eds. 2015. Sociology: A Concise South African Introduction. Cape Town: Juta.
Tischler, Henry L. 2011. Introduction to Sociology. 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Turner, Bryan S., ed. 2006. The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikipedia contributors. (N.d.) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/).
ASA – American Sociological Association (5th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “collective consciousness.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Retrieved September 27, 2022 (https://sociologydictionary.org/collective-consciousness/).
APA – American Psychological Association (6th edition)
collective consciousness. (2013). In K. Bell (Ed.), Open education sociology dictionary. Retrieved from https://sociologydictionary.org/collective-consciousness/
Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date – Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition)
Bell, Kenton, ed. 2013. “collective consciousness.” In Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Accessed September 27, 2022. https://sociologydictionary.org/collective-consciousness/.
MLA – Modern Language Association (7th edition)
“collective consciousness.” Open Education Sociology Dictionary. Ed. Kenton Bell. 2013. Web. 27 Sep. 2022. <https://sociologydictionary.org/collective-consciousness/>.