Audio Pronunciation: (look·ism)
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- “[F]avoritism for the attractive and discrimination against the unattractive—creates a structure of unequal opportunity, providing unearned advantages to the attractive and disadvantages to the unattractive. While it is often claimed that ‘beauty is in the eye of the beholder’—that the assessment of attractiveness is a highly subjective matter—in fact there are high levels of agreement about attractiveness that are largely unaffected by the ‘beholder’s’ sex, age, or socioeconomic status. There is even substantial cross-cultural agreement” (McNamee and Miller 2013:208).
- Blaine, Bruce Evan. 2007. Understanding the Psychology of Diversity. Los Angeles: SAGE.
- Etcoff, N. L. 1999. Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. New York: Doubleday.
- Hamermesh, Daniel S. 2013. Beauty Pays: Why Attractive People are More Successful. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Miller, Alan S., and Satoshi Kanazawa. 2007. Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters: From Dating, Shopping, and Praying to Going to War and Becoming a Billionaire: Two Evolutionary Psychologists Explain Why We Do What We Do. New York: Perigee Book.
- O’Brien, Jodi. 2009. Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Sargeant, Malcolm. 2011. Age Discrimination and Diversity: Multiple Discrimination from an Age Perspective. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
McNamee, Stephen J., and Robert K. Miller. 2013. The Meritocracy Myth. 3rd. ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.