(noun) A crime, often violent, motivated by prejudice.
Audio Pronunciation: (hate crime)
Download Audio Pronunciation: hate crime.mp3
- Plural: hate crimes
- In some jurisdictions, when a crime is considered a hate crime, the punishment is harsher.
- Hate crimes are motivated by prejudice and stereotypes.
- A type of crime.
- Also called:
- bias crime
- bias-motivated crime
- Barnes A, Ephross PH. 1994. “The Impact of Hate Violence on Victims: Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Attacks.” Social work 39(3):247–51.
- Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B. 2013. Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies. 3rd. ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
- Jacobs, James B., and Kimberly Potter. 1998. Hate Crimes: Criminal Law & Identity Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Jenness, Valerie, and Ryken Grattet. 2001. Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement. New York: Russell Sage.
- Levin, Brian. 2002. “From Slavery to Hate Crime Laws: The Emergence of Race and Status-Based Protection in American Criminal Law.” JOSI Journal of Social Issues 58(2):227–45.
- Levin, Jack, and Jack McDevitt. 2002. Hate Crimes Revisited: America’s War Against Those Who Are Fifferent. Boulder, CO: Westview.
- Perry, Barbara. 2001. In the Name of Hate: Understanding Hate Crimes. New York: Routledge.
- Prum, Michel, Bénédicte Deschamps, and Marie-Claude Barbier. 2012. Racial, Ethnic, and Homophobic Violence Killing in the Name of Otherness. Hoboken, NJ: Taylor and Francis.
- Spalek, Basia, and Jo Campling. 2006. Crime Victims: Theory, Policy and Practice. Houndmills, Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.