Example: Robert Henry Codrington’s (1830–1922) The Melanesians: Studies in their Anthropology and Folk-Lore (1891) or Margaret Mead’s (1901-1978) Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935).
Audio Pronunciation: (eth·nog·ra·phy)
Download Audio Pronunciation: ethnography.mp3
- Plural: ethnographies
- Also called descriptive anthropology.
- Ethnography used in a sentence: I completed an ethnography of a domestic violence shelter.
- An (noun) ethnographer uses the research methodology of ethnography to produce (adjective) ethnographic or (adjective) ethnographical work (adverb) ethnographically.
- “Ethnographers seek out the insider’s viewpoint. Because culture is the knowledge people use to generate behavior and interpret experience, the ethnographer seeks to understand group members’ behavior from the inside, or cultural, perspective. Instead of looking for a subject to observe, ethnographers look for an informant to teach them the culture” (Spradley and McCurdy 2008:4).
- Atkinson, Paul. 1990. The Ethnographic Imagination: Textual Constructions of Reality. London: Routledge.
- Behar, Ruth. 1996. The Vulnerable Observer: Anthropology That Breaks Your Heart. Boston: Beacon Press.
- Emerson, Robert M., Rachel I. Fretz, and Linda L. Shaw. 2011. Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Ferrell, Jeff, and Mark S. Hamm. 1998. Ethnography at the Edge: Crime, Deviance, and Field Research. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
- Hine, Christine. 2000. Virtual Ethnography. London: SAGE.
- Lawson, Helene M. 2000. Ladies on the Lot: Women, Car Sales, and the Pursuit of the American Dream. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
- Neyland, Daniel. 2008. Organizational Ethnography. Los Angeles: SAGE.
- Websdale, Neil. 1998. Rural Woman Battering and the Justice System: An Ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Van Maanen, John. 2011. Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Wolcott, Harry F. 2009. Writing Up Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Spradley, James P., and David W. McCurdy. 2008. Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology. Boston: Pearson Education.