(*noun*) In statistical analysis, a standardized measure of the covariance between two variables expressed between -1 and +1. The sign of the coefficient indicates the direction of the relationship while the magnitude is indicated by the value of the coefficient with 0 indicating absolutely no correlation and a value of ±1 indicating perfect correlation.

**Example:** The correlation coefficient of -.85 indicates a strong negative correlation between two variables.

**Audio Pronunciation: **(cor·re·la·tion co·ef·fi·cient)

**Download Audio Pronunciation:** correlation coefficient.mp3

**Usage Notes:**

- Plural:
**correlation coefficients**

- The most common test for correlation is the Pearson product-movement correlation (commonly referred to as Pearson correlation) which tests the linear correlation between two variables where data approximates interval level characteristics.
- Pearson correlation produces a correlation coefficient, Pearson’s
*r*, which is an absolute measure of the strength of association between two variables as they approximate a linear relationship. The value of the coefficient can range from -1 to +1. When*r*= 0; the two variables have no linear relationship. While the size and sign of the coefficient are important, the coefficient must also be statistically significant for a relationship between two variables to be considered present in the data. - Correlation forms the basis of regression analysis. Regression allows for the effects of additional variables to be considered in the relationship of
*x*on*y*. - Also called:
**coefficient of association**

**coefficient of correlation**

- Correlation coefficient used in a sentence: The negative correlation coefficient is also significant, indicating that scores on one variable are inversely associated with scores on the second variable.

**Additional Information:**

- Abelson, Robert P. 1995.
*Statistics as Principled Argument*. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. - Agresti, Alan, and Barbara Finlay. 2009.
*Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences*. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. - Babbie, Earl. 2013.
*The Practice of Social Research*. 13th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. - Bryman, Alan. 2012.
*Social Research Methods*. New York: Oxford University Press. - Cole, Stephen. 1972.
*The Sociological Method*. Chicago: Markham Publishing Company. - Creswell, John W. 2014.
*Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mix Methods Approaches*. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. - DeMaris, Alfred. 2005.
*Regression with Social Data: Modeling Continuous and Limited Response Variables.*New Jersey: Willey. - Hakim, Catherine. 1982.
*Secondary Analysis in Social Research: A Guide to Data Sources and Methods with Examples*. London; Boston: Allen & Unwin. - Huff, Darrell, and Irving Geis. 1954.
*How to Lie with Statistics*. New York: Norton. - Irvine, John, Ian Miles, and Jeff Evans. 1979.
*Demystifying Social Statistics*. London: Pluto Press. - Kenny, David A. 1979.
*Correlation and Causality*. New York: Wiley - Krieg, Eric J. 2012.
*Statistics and Data Analysis for Social Science*. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. - Marsh, Catherine, and Jane Elliott. 2008.
. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.*Exploring Data: An Introduction to Data Analysis for Social Scientists* - Paulos, John Allen. 1995.
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*Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of Method*. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications - Rosenberg, Morris. 1968.
*The Logic of Survey Analysis*. New York: Basic Books. - Singleton, Royce, and Bruce C. Straits. 2010.
*Approaches to Social Research*. New York: Oxford University Press. - Teddie, Charles, and Abbas Tashakkori. 2009.
*Foundations of Mixed Methods Research: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches in the Social and Behavioral Sciences*. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. - Vogt, W. Paul. 2011.
*Dictionary of Statistics and Methodology: A Nontechnical Guide for the Social Sciences*. London: SAGE. - Wysocki, Diane Kholos. 2008.
*Readings in Social Research Methods*. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. - List of National Statistical Services –
*Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia*: en.wikipedia.org - Sociological Research Online: socresonline.org.uk
- This is Statistics: thisisstatistics.org
- United Nations – Statistics: unstats.un.org
**Journals:****Organizations:**- American Statistical Association: amstat.org
- Center For Statistics And The Social Sciences: csss.washington.edu
- Institute for Quantitative Social Science: iq.harvard.edu
- International Statistical Institute: isi-web.org
- Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research: icpsr.umich.edu
- Royal Statistical Society: rss.org.uk
- Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland: ssisi.ie
- Statistical Society of Canada: ssc.ca
- Statistical Society of Australia: statsoc.org.au

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