Example: The department of motor vehicles or city hall.
Audio Pronunciation: (bu·reauc·ra·cy)
Download Audio Pronunciation: bureaucracy.mp3
- Plural: bureaucracies
- Commonly, bureaucracy connotes hierarchical structures in a negative light due to the absence of individual freedom of initiative and the overuse of delegation.
- A (noun) bureaucrat works in a (adjective) bureaucratic organization.
- “Bureaucracies generally reward compliance, not defiance. In bureaucratic settings, one does not typically advance by being the defiant, rugged, and fiercely independent individualist of American folklore, but by going along to get along, being a team player, following the rules and procedures, and slowly climbing the bureaucratic ladder one step at a time” (McNamee and Miller 2013:171-172).
- Fischer, Frank, and Carmen Sirianni. 1994. Critical Studies in Organization and Bureaucracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- Goodsell, Charles T. 2004. The Case for Bureaucracy: A Public Administration Polemic. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
- Greenberg, Alan L. 2010. Confessions of a Government Man: How to Succeed in Any Bureaucracy. Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Pub.
- Lipsky, Michael. 2010. Street-level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Peters, B. Guy. 2010. The politics of bureaucracy: an introduction to comparative public administration. London: Routledge.
- Weber, Max. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization.
- Von Mises, Ludwig. 1944. Bureaucracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- clear division of labor
- explicit rules
- hierarchy of authority
- Weber, Max
McNamee, Stephen J., and Robert K. Miller. 2013. The Meritocracy Myth. 3rd. ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
OpenStax College. 2012. Formal Organizations. Connexions, June 12, 2012. (http://cnx.org/content/m42833/1.3/).